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Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

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Bureau for Economic Theory and Applications

Laboratoire d'Economie Forestière


If the definition of some terms miss you, you are in the right place!

Apparent consumption: Production + Imports - Exports

Biodiversity: Diversity of life: diversity of plant and animal species, genetic diversity of all living things, diversity of structures

Coppice: Forest settlement composed of trees resulting from stock rejections.

Crown: The upper part of a tree or other woody plant, carrying the main branch system and foliage

Eco-certification: Eco-certification, or certification of sustainable forest management, involves the issue, by an independent agency, of a certificate guaranteeing that the products marketed come from natural resources fulfilling specifications. This includes requirements in terms of management of natural resources, or level of performance of such management, or both. The certification covers a part of forest management itself, and secondly, the products from these forests thanks to the establishment of a wood chain control (monitoring origin and processes). There are 5 certification systems in the world. France chose the PEFC (Pan European Forest Certification) best suited to the small forest ownership. Note the voluntary nature of this approach. (definition Mediaforest)

Ecosystem: complex of a community and its environment functioning as an ecological unit in nature (

Forest: Wooden area of 50 acres with trees able to reach a height greater than five meters at maturity in situ, a of more than 10% and a width of at least 20 meters. Areas temporarily cleared or regenerating forests are classified as though they covered less than 10% during the inventory. Note: poplar (rate of free covered poplar grown on more than 75%) are included in the definition of forest. In contrast, walnut groves and chestnut groves as well as truffle cultivation and orchards are excluded (agricultural production). (IFN definition, new inventory method)

Forest management: Rational management of homogeneous or coherent forest plots (the "management unit" for the FSC) biogeographically.

Forest mensuration: That branch of forestry concerned with the determination of the dimensions, form, increment, and age of trees, individually or collectively, and of the dimensions of their products, particularly logs and sawn timber. (

Forest structure: Stand structure is determined from observation of the canopy cover rates of high forest and coppice alive (and of the vertical distribution of the forest if less than stands have 25% of coppice). The structure is determined only to "closed forests”. It could be even-aged high forests, non even-aged high forests, mixture of high forests and coppices or coppices.

Fuel wood: Roundwood, or split, or sawn (often regarded as waste), cut into pieces, slices or small length logs, or shredded into sticks, and to be burned to produce heat.

Gross annual increment: Corresponds to the increase in timber volume over bark in one year. It is the sum of annual growth and recruitment. It is calculated on the five years preceding the survey year. It is expressed in cubic meters per year. The annual increase in volume over bark is the tree growth alive census is to say, the average gain in annual volume of live trees identified. Annual recruitment is the average gain in volume of trees that have crossed the threshold recensabilité during the five year period defined above. (NFI definition)

Grove: Territory with an area greater than or equal to 5 acres and less than 50 acres, with trees able to reach a height greater than five meters at maturity in situ, a tree canopy cover of more than 40% and a width of at least 20 meters. The groves are not part of the forest area (NFI new inventory method)

Harvest rate: Ratio between harvests and annual increment.

High forest: Crops and stands of trees, generally of seedling origin, that normally develop a high closed cover.

Industrial Roundwood: Roundwood not fit for sawing, peeling or slicing, and normally intended for industrial uses: pulpwood (panels, paper pulp) and other industrial roundwood (poles, mine timber).

Log: Any section of the bole, or of the thicker branches, of a felled tree, after trimming and cross-cutting.

Logging: process of removing forest produce, particularly timber, fuelwood and Bamboos, from its place of growth to some permanent or major delivery point, either for further transport or further manufacture (i.e. secondary conversion) or both. Code NAF rév.2 2008 : 02.2

Net annual Increment: Gross annual increment - mortality.

Production forest: Forest managed primarily for the direct, material products of its growth, particularly its major produce. (

Pulp and paper industry: Manufacture of pulp, paper and paper products, recycled or not. The manufacture of these products is grouped together because they constitute a series of vertically connected processes. Several of them are often completed in a single unit. There are essentially three activities. The manufacturing of pulp involves separating the cellulose fibers from impurities in wood or dissolving and de-inked recycled paper, and mixing small amounts of reagents to reinforce the binder fibers. Papermaking is to spread the pulp on a moving grid to form a continuous sheet. Products made from recycled paper is made from paper and other materials by various techniques. The paper can be printed (eg wallpaper, gift, etc..), since the printed information is not its principal purpose. (INSEE definition). Codes NAF rév.2 2008 : 17.11 Pulp industry ; 17.12 Paper and paperboard industry ; 17.2 Paper products industry.

Stand: Set of trees all considered quite homogeneous, especially with regard to its floristic composition, structure, age and its distribution in space, to distinguish themselves from nearby stands. (

Standing timber volume: Gross volume over bark of the stem (from the stump to the crown or the first main branch). NFI includes in its calculation the volume of production forest trees with a diameter at breist (dbh) greater than 7.5 cm. For these trees, the volume taken into account includes the stem from the ground up to a diameter of 7 cm. It also includes the bark and one main limb. (NFI definition)

Stere: Unit volume for firewood, which is bounded by a cube of a meter square.

Swanwood industry: Forestry sector which aims to transform logs into sawnwoods and secondary products. Code NAF rév.2 2008 : 16.1

Sylviculture: Set of techniques to create, renew, improve forest stand in accompanying or directing the natural growth of trees towards the production of goods (roundwood, ...) or services (landscape quality, soil protection, carbon storage , hospitality and leisure ...) without compromising the future of the forest ecosystem. Code NAF rév.2 2008 : 02.10

Thinnings: Improvement cuttings, which consist of removing the smallest individuals and / or malformed, to allow the other trees to grow.

Timber: Timber suitable for framing and load-bearing structures essentially by virtue of its strength. Lumber used in a structure which will carry leavy loads, and graded according to the particular use of the lumber. (

Volis: Part of the stem of a broken tree that fell on the ground.

Windthrow: Trees uprooted by the action of natural effects (wind, lightning, snow, fall of another tree), without human intervention

Wood furniture industry: Includes the manufacture of seats and wooden furniture. Part of the industry "furniture" (code NAF rév.2 2008 : 31).

Wood industry: Manufacture of wood products such as sawn timber, wood panels, veneers, wood packaging, wood flooring, wood framings and wood buildings. The production processes include sawing, planing, shaping, laminating, and assembling of wood products starting from logs. (INSEE definition). Code NAF rév.2 2008 : 16 ; travail du bois hors sciage (= fabrication d'articles en bois) : 16.2

Wood supply : Quantity of wood that can be harvested in a given area, during any period if we apply reasonable rules management. The resource and wood supply two concepts are complementary but different: the first is static (stock), the second dynamic (flow). (NFI definition)

Wood-based panels: A generic term applied to a group of panel and board products made of wood or other ligno-cellulosic fibres or particles to which binders and other substances may have been added during manufacture so as to impart or improve certain properties. Include: plywood, particle board, fibreboard.

Woodharvests: Production of wood by cutting. Includes marketed and non-marketed harvests.

Woods: Area of woodland exceeding 4 hectares with trees able to reach a height greater than 5 meters at maturity in situ, a tree canopy cover of more than 10% and a width of at least 20 meters. Woods are part of the forest area (NFI new inventory method)

See also